Sunday, November 30, 2008

10 milestones in web history

Web发展史是一部绵长的长篇巨著,有很多值得我们铭记的章节,这里只从中精选出十件意义重大的事件,它们给我们的生活和工作带来了极其深刻的影响。

1、感谢Linus Torvalds,感谢Linux
当Linux Torvalds在1991年推出Linux时,其他UNIX系统开发人员对他冷嘲热讽,一些人认为Linux所使用的计算机构架(32位)是错误的,其 基础结构就是完全错误的。在这些批评面前Torvalds丝毫没有退缩,时至今日,Linux不仅在PC主流操作系统中占据一席之地,也成为一款真正优秀 的Web服务器系统。Torvalds发布这个软件基于GNU开放许可证,这也使得Linux能够迅速地传播和成长。
Linux是互联网的核心:几乎所有的Web主机都使用或是支持Linux,它拥有庞大、忠诚的用户群,作为开源的典范,它促进了Web在大众间的普及。


2、Mosaic浏览器的推出

如果当初没有Mosaic浏览器,互联网将不会在这么短的时间内吸引如此多的用户。作为第一个真正的浏览器,在1993年发布的Mosaic开始支 持书签、图标和流畅的用户界面,还有在当时最令人惊叹的创新:图片支持。从那时开始,互联网才能提供图片下载服务。也正是得益于这一功能的推出,互联网改 头换面,迅速为主流人群接受。
可以这样说,是Mosaic改变了网络数据传输的方式。没有它,整个Web的发展将踏上一条完全不同的道路。


3、W3C发布CSS规范

1996年,世界万维网组织(W3C)发布了首个CSS规范。CSS改变了Web开发的方式,允许开发者轻松调用外部样式表,使得在短时间内改变整个网站的设计成为可能,而且不需要到每个HTML页去寻找需要修改的文本元素。
感谢CSS,正是因为它,网站开发和维护才变得如此简单。


4、开源的正式启动
开源由来已久,只是没有正式的定名,其根源可以追溯到二十世纪60年代,因特网就是在开源的帮助下创建的。1998年在Tim O'Reilly的“Freeware Summit”会议上,“开源”一名被正式确立,并正式启动了开源计划,一些相关的许可协议发布,开发商从此可以自主发布和修改源代码。
开源以软件的形式使现代的大多数网站都从中得益,单单看Wordpress、Firefox、PHP和Linux对Web的发展和浏览器的影响,我们就能窥见开源对网络的影响了。


5、Rasmus Lerdorf推出PHP
多亏了开源,像PHP这样的动态语言才可以在开发者之间自由传播。PHP几乎可以看作是Web编程中最流行的语言,目前运用在2000多万网页和100多万个Web服务器上。
1995年Rasmus Lerdorf首次推出PHP之后,它就迅速风靡起来,别众多开发人员评为优秀的Web编程语言。它运行在服务器上,可以嵌入HTML,与SQL数据库之间实现完美衔接,允许开发人员快速创建、维护复杂的动态交互性站点。



不论是现在还是从前,很多互联网上大型的站点都是基于PHP语言的,比如Facebook、雅虎、维基百科等。同样,这一便捷的语言也被应用于很多流行的网络应用软件的开发,比如Wordpress、Drupal、phpBB等等。

6、PayPal的创立
虽然争议颇多,但PayPal确实开创了在线金钱交易的先河。它创立于1998年,之后受到越来越多的eBay用户的欢迎,到2000年2 月,PayPal在eBay上每天能完成高达200000次的交易,在eBay收购Palpay之后,这一支付处理系统开始允许商家使用自己的API,并 成为一种快速安全的交易方式。


7、Firefox的问世
随着网景的惨败,IE到2003年已经控制了浏览器94%的市场,这种一家独大的局面严重制约了互联网的发展,而且IE也变得懒惰起来,从IE1到IE6,几乎是每年更新一个版本,而IE6到2006年IE7的发布之间隔了足足5年。

2003年Firefox的发布再次引爆浏览器市场,它解决了IE中存在的大量缺陷,提供了分页浏览、拼写检查、Live书签等许多新的功能。对于所有Web开发人员,Firefox最吸引人的是它所采用的Gecko渲染引擎。
如今Firefox已经可以和IE分庭抗礼了,也在无形中大大促进了互联网的发展,并将浏览器带到了一个百花争鸣的时代。


8、Ruby On Rails的崛起
很多人也许没有注意到Web发展史上这个里程碑式的事件,但这并不影响Ruby On Rails的重要性,正式它体现了网站开发的一个翻天覆地的转变:架构的使用。
David Heinemeier Hansson在2004年发布了Ruby on Rails,从此,许多以其他语言为核心的Web开发架构也陆续被推出。RoR是一个model-view-controller架构,也就是说,它利用机架(scaffolding)和其他辅助方法来消除编程中的重复任务,这样就大大缩短了开发者的项目开发周期。
架构加快了开发工作进程,改变了Web开发的方式。 自那时起,各大网站便用Web架构来提供完整的Web服务。RoR在苹果操作系统Leopard中的使用也证明了它的日益强大和重要。


9、37 Signals推出Getting Real Ebook
在过去五年中,37 Signals一直是最受欢迎的we开发公司,不仅仅因为他们所开发的优秀产品,还因为他们作为现代Web开发的精神领袖所做的一切,包括对敏捷开发的支 持和拥护。他们的旗舰产品Basecamp是在第一个RoR版本基础上开发的,并直接推动了架构概念在2004年的产生。而37 Signals在2006年推出的Getting Real Ebook也使得敏捷开发概念最终流行了起来。
Web开发者也是从那时起开始了敏捷Web开发实践,并接受学习了Getting Real Ebook的理念。像Google和微软这样的大企业也逐渐接受了这一理念,减少繁文缛节,利用较小的团队在最短的周期内发布新产品。





10、Amozon推出云存储和云服务

随着2006年Amazon S3和EC2的推出,云存储和在线云服务开始真正被人们所理解和接受。使用Amazon提供的服务,企业仅需要支付他们实际使用的流量就可以了,免去了增加服务器所需的昂贵费用。云服务提供了一种更快速更便宜的选择来替代传统的Web服务器。
云服务的推出降低了踏入Web行业的门槛,也正是由于云计算的出现,突发情况对通信的影响也不再是问题,当机时间也差不多可以忽略了。现在,Web开发人员可以不必再受困于资金或是担心昂贵的服务器费用,只要有创意就可以开始创业,以最小的成本完成自己的理想。

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