Friday, July 17, 2009

HTML Character set and special characters

Table of printable Latin-1 Character codes
Characters of the iso-latin1 character set
© Copyright W3C out=>

Special characters

If you need a to use a special character, like an accented character or a currency sign, you have to use a special notation. There are two ways to use these special characters:
  1. Use the decimal representation, in the format &#nnn;, where nnn is the decimal code of the character.
  2. Use a character entity, in the format &ccc;, where ccc is the character string that represents the specific character.

HTML 4.0 supports three sets of special characters:

ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) characters
Decimal Character Example Explanation
   no-break space
¡¡ ¡inverted exclamation mark
¢¢ ¢cent sign
££ £pound sign
¤¤¤currency sign
¥¥ ¥yen sign = yuan sign
¦¦¦broken bar = brolen vertical bar
§§ §section sign
¨¨ ¨diaeresis = spacing diaeresis
©© ©copyright sign
ªª ªfeminine ordinal indicator
«« «left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet
¬¬ ¬not sign = discretionary hyphen
­­ ­soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen
®® ®registered sign = registered trade mark sign
¯¯ ¯macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar
°° °degree sign
±±±plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign
²² ²superscript two = superscript digit two = squared
³³ ³superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed
´´ ´acute accent = spacing acute
µµ µmicro sign
¶¶ pilcrow sign = paragraph sign
···middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot
¸ç¸cedilla = spacing cedilla
¹¹ ¹superscript one = superscript digit one
ºº ºmasculine ordinal indicator
»» »right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet
¼¼¼vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter
½½½vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half
¾¾¾vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters
¿¿¿inverted question mark = turned question mark
ÀÀÀlatin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave
ÁÁÁlatin capital letter A with acute
ÂÂ Âlatin capital letter A with circumflex
ÃÃÃlatin capital letter A with tilde
ÄÄ Älatin capital letter A with diaeresis
ÅÅ Ålatin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring
ÆÆ Ælatin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE
ÇÇÇlatin capital letter C with cedilla
ÈÈÈlatin capital letter E with grave
ÉÉÉlatin capital letter E with acute
ÊÊ Êlatin capital letter E with circumflex
ËË Ëlatin capital letter E with diaeresis
ÌÌÌlatin capital letter I with grave
ÍÍÍlatin capital letter I with acute
ÎÎ Îlatin capital letter I with circumflex
ÏÏ Ïlatin capital letter I with diaeresis
ÐÐ Ðlatin capital letter ETH
ÑÑÑlatin capital letter N with tilde
ÒÒÒlatin capital letter O with grave
ÓÓÓlatin capital letter O with acute
ÔÔ Ôlatin capital letter O with circumflex
ÕÕÕlatin capital letter O with tilde
ÖÖ Ölatin capital letter O with diaeresis
×× ×multiplication sign
ØØØlatin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash
ÙÙÙlatin capital letter U with grave
ÚÚÚlatin capital letter U with acute
ÛÛ Ûlatin capital letter U with circumflex
ÜÜ Ülatin capital letter U with diaeresis
ÝÝÝlatin capital letter Y with acute
ÞÞ Þlatin capital letter THORN
ßß ßlatin small letter sharp s = ess-zed
àààlatin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave
ááálatin small letter a with acute
ââ âlatin small letter a with circumflex
ãããlatin small letter a with tilde
ää älatin small letter a with diaeresis
åå ålatin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring
ææ ælatin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae
çççlatin small letter c with cedilla
èèèlatin small letter e with grave
ééélatin small letter e with acute
êê êlatin small letter e with circumflex
ëë ëlatin small letter e with diaeresis
ìììlatin small letter i with grave
ííílatin small letter i with acute
îî îlatin small letter i with circumflex
ïï ïlatin small letter i with diaeresis
ðð ðlatin small letter eth
ñññlatin small letter n with tilde
òòòlatin small letter o with grave
óóólatin small letter o with acute
ôô ôlatin small letter o with circumflex
õõõlatin small letter o with tilde
öö ölatin small letter o with diaeresis
÷÷÷division sign
øøølatin small letter o with stroke = latin small letter o slash
ùùùlatin small letter u with grave
úúúlatin small letter u with acute
ûû ûlatin small letter u with circumflex
üü ülatin small letter u with diaeresis
ýýýlatin small letter y with acute
þþ þlatin small letter thorn with
ÿÿ ÿlatin small letter y with diaeresis

Symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

The character entity references in this section produce characters that may be represented by glyphs in the widely available Adobe Symbol font, including Greek characters, various bracketing symbols, and a selection of mathematical operators such as gradient, product, and summation symbols.
Note from HTML 4.0 :

This entity set contains all the letters used in modern Greek. However, it does not include Greek punctuation, precomposed accented characters nor the non-spacing accents (tonos, dialytika) required to compose them. There are no archaic letters, Coptic-unique letters, or precomposed letters for Polytonic Greek. The entities defined here are not intended for the representation of modern Greek text and would not be an efficient representation; rather, they are intended for occasional Greek letters used in technical and mathematical works.

Symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters
Decimal Character Example Explanation
ƒ ƒ ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin
Α Α Α greek capital letter alpha
Β Β Β greek capital letter beta
Γ Γ Γ greek capital letter gamma
Δ Δ Δ greek capital letter delta
Ε Ε Ε greek capital letter epsilon
Ζ Ζ Ζ greek capital letter zeta
Η Η Η greek capital letter eta
Θ Θ Θ greek capital letter theta
Ι Ι Ι greek capital letter iota
Κ Κ Κ greek capital letter kappa
Λ Λ Λ greek capital letter lambda
Μ Μ Μ greek capital letter mu
Ν Ν Ν greek capital letter nu
Ξ Ξ Ξ greek capital letter xi
Ο Ο Ο greek capital letter omicron
Π Π Π greek capital letter pi
Ρ Ρ Ρ greek capital letter rho
Σ Σ Σ greek capital letter sigma
Τ Τ Τ greek capital letter tau
Υ Υ Υ greek capital letter upsilon
Φ Φ Φ greek capital letter phi
Χ Χ Χ greek capital letter chi
Ψ Ψ Ψ greek capital letter psi
Ω Ω Ω greek capital letter omega
α α α greek small letter alpha
β β β greek small letter beta
γ γ γ greek small letter gamma
δ δ δ greek small letter delta
ε ε ε greek small letter epsilon
ζ ζ ζ greek small letter zeta
η η η greek small letter eta
θ θ θ greek small letter theta
ι ι ι greek small letter iota
κ κ κ greek small letter kappa
λ λ λ greek small letter lambda
μ μ μ greek small letter mu
ν ν ν greek small letter nu
ξ ξ ξ greek small letter xi
ο ο ο greek small letter omicron
π π π greek small letter pi
ρ ρ ρ greek small letter rho
ς ς ς greek small letter final sigma
σ σ σ greek small letter sigma
τ τ τ greek small letter tau
υ υ υ greek small letter upsilon
φ φ φ greek small letter phi
χ χ χ greek small letter chi
ψ ψ ψ greek small letter psi
ω ω ω greek small letter omega
ϑ ϑ ϑ greek small letter theta symbol
ϒ ϒ ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol
ϖ ϖ ϖ greek pi symbol
•• bullet = black small circle
…… horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader
′′ prime = minutes = feet
″″ double prime = seconds = inches
‾‾ overline = spacing overscore
⁄⁄ fraction slash
℘℘ script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p
ℑℑ blackletter capital I = imaginary part
ℜℜ blackletter capital R = real part symbol
™™ trade mark sign
ℵℵ alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal
←← leftwards arrow
↑↑ upwards arrow
→→ rightwards arrow
↓↓ downwards arrow
↔↔ left right arrow
↵↵ downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return
⇐⇐ leftwards double arrow
⇑⇑ upwards double arrow
⇒⇒ rightwards double arrow
⇓⇓ downwards double arrow
⇔⇔ left right double arrow
∀∀ for all
∂∂ partial differential
∃∃ there exists
∅∅ empty set = null set = diameter
∇∇ nabla = backward difference
∈∈ element of
∉∉ not an element of
∋∋ contains as member
∏∏ n-ary product = product sign
∑∑ n-ary sumation
−− minus sign
∗∗ asterisk operator
√√ square root = radical sign
∝∝ proportional to
∞∞ infinity
∠∠ angle
∧∧ logical and = wedge
∨∨ logical or = vee
∩∩ intersection = cap
∪∪ union = cup
∫∫ integral
∴∴ therefore
∼∼ tilde operator = varies with = similar to
≅≅ approximately equal to
≈≈ almost equal to = asymptotic to
≠≠ not equal to
≡≡ identical to
≤≤ less-than or equal to
≥≥ greater-than or equal to
⊂⊂ subset of
⊃⊃ superset of
⊄⊄ not a subset of
⊆⊆ subset of or equal to
⊇⊇ superset of or equal to
⊕⊕ circled plus = direct sum
⊗⊗ circled times = vector product
⊥⊥ up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular
⋅⋅ dot operator
⌈⌈ left ceiling = apl upstile
⌉⌉ right ceiling
⌊⌊ left floor = apl downstile
⌋⌋ right floor
〈⟨ left-pointing angle bracket = bra
〉⟩ right-pointing angle bracket = ket
◊◊ lozenge
♠♠ black spade suit
♣♣ black club suit = shamrock
♥♥ black heart suit = valentine
♦♦ black diamond suit

Markup-significant and internationalization characters

The character entity references in this section are for escaping markup-significant characters, for denoting spaces and dashes. Other characters in this section apply to internationalization issues such as the disambiguation of bidirectional text.

Markup-significant and internationalization characters
Decimal Character Example Explanation
" " " quotation mark = APL quote
& & & ampersand
&#60; &lt; < less-than sign
&#62; &gt; > greater-than sign
&#338; &OElig; Πlatin capital ligature OE
&#339; &oelig; œ latin small ligature oe
&#352; &Scaron; Š latin capital letter S with caron
&#353; &scaron; š latin small letter s with caron
&#376; &Yuml; Ÿ latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
&#710; &circ; ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent
&#732; &tilde; ˜ small tilde
&#8194;&ensp; en space
&#8195;&emsp; em space
&#8201;&thinsp; thin space
&#8204;&zwnj; zero width non-joiner
&#8205;&zwj; zero width joiner
&#8206;&lrm; left-to-right mark
&#8207;&rlm; right-to-left mark
&#8211;&ndash; en dash
&#8212;&mdash; em dash
&#8216;&lsquo; left single quotation mark
&#8217;&rsquo; right single quotation mark
&#8218;&sbquo; single low-9 quotation mark
&#8220;&ldquo; left double quotation mark
&#8221;&rdquo; right double quotation mark
&#8222;&bdquo; double low-9 quotation mark
&#8224;&dagger; dagger
&#8225;&Dagger; double dagger
&#8240;&permil; per mille sign
&#8249;&lsaquo; single left-pointing angle quotation mark
&#8250;&rsaquo; single right-pointing angle quotation mark
&#8364;&euro; euro sign


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