Saturday, July 18, 2009

Google vs. Microsoft: What you need to know

简介

不到一周的时间,谷歌宣称将发布一款同Windows系统竞争的操作系统,而微软宣称要发布Office 10,其中包括四款广受欢迎的软件程序的免费网络版——向谷歌的一套基于网络的办公应用软件宣战。微软与谷歌之战尘埃落定之时,世界上最了不起的高科技公 司也将出炉。

原文作者:Ryan Singel
原文链接:Google vs. Microsoft: What you need to know
译者:zhanyisky

谷歌VS微软:你必须知道的

赖安·辛格

google vs microsoft

至多一个半月前,微软推出了新的搜索引擎Bing,希望从谷歌的市场份额中分得一杯羹,并最终实现真正的网络业务盈利。

新闻透露这是一场全面的高科技战争,充斥着明争暗斗,双方利用政府监管机构互相攻击。

然而这场较量并非性命攸关——由于两家公司吸钱的方式截然不同,不可能在短期内重创对方,因此这更多只是一场决出谁是高科技之王的争斗。

谷歌2008年收入220亿美元,97%来自销售关键字微型文字广告服务,这些广告置于此关键字的搜索结果内,或者网站页面上。谷歌以每年50美元一个的价格,打包销售其在线商用服务,赚取的利润微不足道——但通常其在线文本编辑器、电子邮件和电子制表程序是白送的。

相比之下,微软在过去9个月销售了价值143亿美元的Microsoft Word、PowerPoint和其他商用软件,赚取的利润达93亿美元。此外2008年其操作系统销售收入160亿美元,涵盖了安装在上网本上的XP系 统、Vista系统、Windows Mobile系统及服务器软件。

现在谷歌计划推出自己的系列操作系统,开始是针对智能电话这类小型设备的开源操作系统Android,及可以在上网本和台式机上运行的、以浏览器为重点的开源操作系统Chrome OS。

显然,每家公司的高管都琢磨了对方赚得盆满钵满的方法及实现梦想的途径,并试图依葫芦画瓢,或至少让对方难以赚到钱。

其实,他们彼此厌恶到花钱让对方收入受损——例如,微软的幕后阵营从中作梗,破坏了去年谷歌-雅虎的广告交易提议;或锲而不舍试图使谷歌的图书搜索解决方案计划流产。

但实际上,两者之间的竞争真地想要开创一番天地,好让消费者都生活在他们的技术构建的生活中。而且,这也关乎自尊——为获任世界上最了不起的高科技公司而战。

微软巴不得世上每个人都用它的IE浏览器,搜索用Bing,看新闻用MSN门户网站,给朋友发电邮用Hotmail或Outlook。再加上运行 Windows Mobile系统的智能手机与孩子在客厅玩的Xbox,你就有了个微软之家。尽管这一说法太过戏谑,对各类软件开发商而言,无论是开发小的商业软件,还是 大的在线角色扮演游戏,或是相片编辑功能,微软仍是占主导地位的平台。

谷歌的天地看来不同。它始于谷歌的Chrome浏览器(奇怪地是仅能在Windows上运行),其默认主页设置为谷歌新闻,或一个定制的谷歌页面。 经此你可以进入Gmail,然后点击一个作为附件发送给你的Word文件,谷歌将迅速——而安全地——用在线文字处理器为你打开文档。

但最重要的,谷歌希望你搜索和浏览网页,点击那些嵌有谷歌服务的广告和谷歌追踪记录标记。你可能觉得谷歌太好了,白白送给你所有这些免费技术,却从未料到谷歌为了把你转给广告商赚钱,正在源源不断悄无声息地收集你的档案数据。

那么,这两家公司在四个关键性竞争领域内,状况如何呢?

浏览器:各版IE仍然占据近70%的市场(依统计者和统计方式而定)。即使微软最新出炉的IE8在外观和先进的网络性能方面,落后于其他所有主要浏览器,这种优势依然存在。

Firefox, Opera,和苹果的Safari浏览器在过去5年里都推动了浏览器创新,但就算其他替代浏览器更安全先进,大多数人仍对IE浏览器不离不弃。为什么这至关重要呢?嘿,IE浏览器安装中有个默认主页,是吧?

另一方面,谷歌的Chrome浏览器,是一款漂亮的天才浏览器。它界面简洁,操作灵敏,彻底变革了标签的处理方式。地址栏就是搜索框(自然地,谷歌 将其设置为默认浏览器)。每个网站都用它自己的浏览器打开,读写文件的权限很低。其标签保护机制意味着,如果某个网站挂了或垮了,其他的不受影响。同时, 较低权限也让黑客难以通过你的浏览器侵入你的电脑。

Chrome浏览器拥有不到2%的市场份额。

在线搜索:对大多数用户而言,谷歌现在就是搜索的代名词。谷歌的搜索引擎意味着收钱。6月,美国网民接收的搜索结果页面占谷歌总的搜索结果页面的 78.5%。2009年前三个月,谷歌收入52亿美元,主要来自AdWords,这是一种基于拍卖的服务,能引发基于关键字(搜索查询中产生的)的广告。

微软最近推出了新款搜索引擎Bing,希望其表现胜过Google。它有一些很好的创新,说明微软想方设法寻求更好的方式向用户展示搜索信息,它通 过综合处理数据、而不仅仅是检索链接来找到途径。然而,尽管Bing做了上述改进,但价值一亿美元的广告大战和狂轰烂炸的新闻报道却让其像个弱 者,Bing在6月仅上涨了一个百分点,让微软在整个搜索引擎市场得到了8.2%的份额。

操作系统:微软自1979年起就已经在生产操作系统,它花了28年时间完善MS-DOS和Windows NT,让这种架构方式深入人心。据估计,全世界大约90%的笔记本电脑和台式机上都运行微软的系统。靠着拷贝竞争对手产品的最佳性能,借助引人质疑的许可 证协议,利用其惯有用户的基础来赢得战胜创新者的时机等一系列手段,微软在操作系统市场牢牢占据领先地位几乎30年。任凭来自数字化研究、苹果和IBM的 挑战,岿然不动。

微软最新版的Windows 7系统这个秋天将上市。早期评论说该系统启动迅速,关机快,避免了一些莫名其妙的界面判断,正是这些判断让很多人讨厌Vista系统,它将接替 Windows XP系统。微软也主宰了商界,几乎每个大中型企业都使用了标准化的Microsoft Office系统。微软也在开发针对手持设备的第6版操作系统,其最早于2000年发布。

微软的操作系统优势巨大。拥有数百万对其他操作系统一无所知且喜欢Windows系统的用户。很多用户喜欢一些只在Windows上可用的游戏或桌面应用程序。很多设备只能插入和工作在微软的硬件上。而熟练掌握微软软件是大量办公室工作的求职需要。

相比之下,谷歌2007年在发布针对小型设备的Android操作系统之时,首先涉足操作系统游戏领域。谷歌估计去年底约有18款型号的手机运行这款操作系统。上周,谷歌低调宣布推出一款与Windows竞争的新款操作系统,取名Chrome OS。

这个名字意味着谷歌的操作系统将基于网络和浏览器。它希望说服开发者编写可在浏览器内而不是操作系统上运行的软件,他们在Windows系统和苹果 的OS X系统上曾编写了大量软件。谷歌通过扩展浏览器功能,允许网站靠浏览器获得存储和处理帮助,也会让网站开发者扩大其站点的影响力。

广告:谷歌网站上基于拍卖的文本广告创新,令其获益匪浅,但随后,通过Adsense计划,它将扩展至在其他站点投放广告服务。2007年,它以超过30亿美元的价格,收购了广告服务和行为定性业巨头Doubleclick,并涉足手机、印刷、广播和电视广告。

微软一直试图复制谷歌互联网广告上的成功。尽管其拥有MSN.com——这个仅次于雅虎的门户站点——但微软尚未在互联网上赚钱。为提高其广告发送技术,2007年微软收购了一家提供全面互联网广告服务的公司aQuantive,为此支付了60多亿美元现金。

事与愿违,微软2008年的互联网广告交易亏损12亿美元,是其2007年损失的两倍。它期望2009年的收入能高于去年获得的32亿美元收入,但并未表示是否盈利。

出人意料,谷歌-微软之争的好处巨大。

微软一向自命不凡,直到谷歌的到来,才撼动了其地位。Gmail可观的在线存储能力和新奇的设计令微软疲于升级其广受欢迎不易使用的互联网e-mail服务。谷歌地图服务催生出微软的Live地图服务,现在,该服务在某些方面甚至比谷歌取得的成就还棒。

过去几年,谷歌在赢得这场较量,说明它比西北边的软件巨头更为聪明机变。但一边倒的局面也许正在放缓,甚或悄然转向。改进Bing,且承诺在线办公产品免费,并比谷歌同类产品功能更完善,微软正在挑战谷歌深得人心之处:创新领域。

而那会促成一场趣味无穷的竞赛,不管你喜欢骑哪一匹马

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